September 18, 2021

Brain disorders

4 min read

 

Brain disorders

.In this article we shall learn and understand brain disorders. Such types of disorders affect the brain. There are lots of brain disorders, but in this section, we shall discuss only the 3 top neurological disorders, along with their symptoms, causes, and treatment.

Brain disorders definition

Brain disorders include any condition or problem that the normal functioning of the brain. This may be caused by traumatic injury, illness, and genetics.

3 top neurological disorders

  1. Headaches
  2. Dementia
  3. Stroke

 

  1. Headaches

These are some of the most common neurological disorders, and there are lots of types of headaches including cluster headaches, tension headaches, and migraines.

Cluster headaches

These headaches occur in cyclic ways or cluster periods. These are some of the most painful types of headaches. Cluster headaches appear with intense pain in or around one eye on one side of your head, in the middle of the night

Common symptoms

Common signs and symptoms during cluster headaches include:

 

  • One-sided pain
  • Excessive tearing
  • Drooping eyelid on the affected side
  • The stuffy or runny nose on the affected side
  • Restlessness
  • Forehead or facial sweating on the affected side
  • Pale skin (pallor) or flushing on your face
  • Redness of your eye on the affected side

Causes

The exact cause of cluster headaches is unknown, but it is estimated that cluster headache patterns indicate that abnormalities in the body’s biological clock (hypothalamus) play a role. These headaches are not related to triggers such as food, hormonal changes, and stress.

Risk Factors

Risk factors for cluster headaches include:

  • Age

Cluster headaches may develop in most people between the ages of 20s to 5os, although the problem may develop at any age.

  • Sex

Cluster headaches may develop in most men as compared to women.

  • Alcohol use

If a person has cluster headaches, drinking alcohol during a cluster period may increase his risk, which is taken by nose drops to stop severe headache pain.

  1. Dementia

It is not a single disease, but rather it is a general term used to demonstrate the sign and symptoms of impairment in memory, communication, and thinking. This brain disorder generally related to cognitive declines, such as forgetfulness.

Stages of dementia

  • (MCI) Mild cognitive impairment: This condition only affects the older people
  • Mild dementia: In this condition, people still be able to function freely
  • Moderate dementia
  • Severe dementia

 

Real facts of dementia

 

Following are the facts of dementia:

 

  • It generally affects old age people, although the problem may develop at any age.
  • Each new case of dementia is reported every 4 seconds worldwide
  • It is estimated that there are about 47.5 million dementia sufferers worldwide

 

Early symptoms

 

  • Poor sense of path or direction
  • Changes or problems in recent memory
  • Confusion
  • Difficulty in finding the right words

 

Late-stage Symptoms

Other signs and symptoms of dementia are as follow:

 

  • Problems in completing the familiar task, for example, cooking a meal
  • Difficulty in communication
  • Difficulty with abstract thinking
  • Loss of recent memory
  • Disorientation
  • Misplacing things

 

Late-stage dementia symptoms tend to worsen, as the sufferer becomes aged.

 

 

Other disorders leading to dementia

Several disorders leading to dementia are as under:

  • Posterior cortical atrophy
  • Down syndrome
  • Normal-pressure hydrocephalus
  • Frontotemporal dementia

 

Dementia Causes

What is the main cause of dementia?

 

Alzheimer’s disease is considered to be the most common cause of dementia. However all the causes of Alzheimer’s disease are not known, only a small percentage is related to the mutation of three genes. These genes are (1) Amyloid precursor protein (2) Presenilin 1 (PSEN1) (3) Presenilin 2 (PSEN2). Such genes can pass from parent to child.

 

 

Other common causes of dementia include:

  • Long-time alcohol or drug use
  • Infections of the central nervous system
  • Vascular disorders
  • Traumatic brain injuries resulting from accidents falls etc.
  • Degenerative neurological diseases.

 

Treatment

There is no proper treatment of different types of dementia, however, there are ways to manage the symptoms.

 

Medications

 

Memantine:

Memantine is specialized to activate glutamate, a chemical involved in brain functions, for example in learning and memory.

Side effect

Dizziness is the common side effect of Memantine.

 

Cholinesterase inhibitors

 

These medications work by boosting levels of a chemical messenger involved in judgment and memory.

 

 

 

  1. Stroke

 

This brain disorder occurs when the blood supply to different parts of the brain is interrupted or reduced, preventing brain tissues from getting nutrients and oxygen. Brain cells start to damage very quickly. It is a medical emergency.

 

Stroke Symptoms

Symptoms and symptoms of stroke may include:

 

  • A severe or sudden headache along with vomiting altered consciousness or dizziness, indicate that you are having a stroke

.

  • Difficulty in speaking and understanding what others are talking.

A sufferer may face confusion or has difficulty in understanding the speech of others.

  • Trouble walking. Because of a stroke, a sufferer may lose his balance. He may also suffer from loss of coordination or sudden dizziness.
  • Problems seeing in one or both eyes. The patient may have blurred or blackened vision in one or both eyes.

 

 

Stroke causes

Ischemic stroke (a blocked artery) and hemorrhagic stroke (bursting of a blood vessel) are two major causes of brain stroke.

 

                                  Ischemic stroke

This is one of the most common brain strokes. It occurs when the blood vessels blocked or become narrowed, resulting in the reduction of blood flow.

Recent research shows that COVID-19 infection may be a possible cause of ischemic stroke.

Hemorrhagic stroke

It occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks or bursts. Brain hemorrhage stroke results from different factors that affect the blood vessels. Some of the factors are as under:

  • Trauma
  • Overtreatment with blood thinners
  • Ischemic stroke leading to hemorrhage
  • Protein deposits in blood vessel walls that lead to weakness in the vessel wall
  • Uncontrolled high blood pressure

 

 

Prevention of brain stroke

 

Injections of a medicine called alteplase can often be used for treating Ischaemic strokes. This medicine dissolves blood clots and restores blood flow to the brain.

As we know that ischemic stroke leads to hemorrhagic stroke, some people who have had a hemorrhagic stroke will also be offered medicine to lower their blood pressure and prevent further stroke.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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