Kidney disease with diabetes
In this section, we shall learn,
- What is diabetic kidney disease?
- How does diabetes cause kidney disease?
- Symptoms of kidney disease with diabetes.
- Treatment of kidney disease with diabetes.
What is diabetic kidney disease?
Diabetic kidney disease is a disease of the kidney caused by diabetes. Diabetes is one of the major causes of kidney disease. Approximately 1 out of 3 adults with diabetes have kidney disease. The main function of the kidney is to filter wastes and extra water from the blood to make urine. The kidney also maintains the normal amount of salts within the body. It also controls blood pressure and makes hormones that the body needs to stay healthy.
When both kidneys damage, they cannot filter blood which can cause wastes to build up in the body. Kidney diabetic disease occurs slowly, over many months or even years.
Names for diabetic kidney disease
Diabetic kidney disease also called DKD, chronic kidney disease CKD, and diabetic nephropathy.
Factors that may increase the chances of diabetic kidney disease
If a person has diabetes for a longer time, it may increase the chances of kidney damage. If a person has diabetes, he is more likely to develop kidney disease if his
- Blood pressure is too high
- The blood sugar level is too high
African, Americans, and Indians develop diabetes, kidney disease, and kidney failure at a higher rate than Caucasians.
Other factors along with diabetes that may cause diabetic kidney disease are;
- Heart disease
- Family history of kidney failure
- Eating food high in salts
How many diabetic patients will develop kidney disease?
It is estimated that approximately 30 percent of patients with type 1 (juvenile-onset) diabetes and 10 to 40 percent of those with type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes eventually will suffer from kidney failure.
Early signs of diabetic kidney disease
The initial signs of diabetic kidney disease are increased excretion of albumin in the urine. During early symptoms weight gain as well as swelling of ankles may occur. The sufferer may use the bathroom many times at night. Blood pressure may get too high.
Late signs of diabetic kidney disease
As the kidneys of a person fail, his blood urea nitrogenous (BUN) levels will rise along with the level of creatinine in the blood. A person may face vomiting, nausea, a loss of appetite, weakness, increasing fatigue, itching, muscle cramps (particularly in the legs), and anemia. The patient may find he needs less insulin, this is because diseased kidneys cause less breakdown of insulin.
Signs of Kidney Disease in Patients with diabetes
- Weakness, paleness, and anemia
- Morning sickness, nausea, and vomiting
- Less need for insulin or antidiabetic medications
- High levels of BUN and creatinine in the blood
- Going to the bathroom more often at night
- Ankle and leg swelling, leg cramps
- Albumin/protein in the urine
- High blood pressure
- Drowsiness (end-stage kidney disease
- Trouble sleeping or concentrating
- Swelling of the hands, feet, and face
- Drowsiness (end-stage kidney disease)
Diabetes and CKD Foods
Following are a few examples of food a person with both diabetes and CKD can eat.
- Drinks: water, clear diet sodas, unsweetened tea
- Veggies: cauliflower, onions, eggplant, turnips
- Fruits: berries, grapes, cherries, apples, plums
- Unsweetened tea. Drinks: water, clear diet sodas,
- Unsalted seafood. : lean meats (poultry, fish), eggs, Proteins
There is only one way CKD diet and diabetes diet can work together, if a person drinks orange juice to treat low blood sugar switch to a kidney-friendly apple or grape juice. A person may get the same blood-sugar boost with a lot less potassium.
Tests can be done to tell if a person has kidney disease.
The diagnosis of kidney disease concerning diabetes is based on the presence of abnormal amounts of protein in the urine. There is a wide variety of tests that can be done to tell if a person has kidney disease. The most widely and commonly used tests are serum creatinine and BUN (blood urea nitrogen. These are not very sensitive tests. The sensitive tests are creatinine clearance, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and urine albumin.
What can a person do to prevent kidney disease?
In order to prevent kidney disease, there is evidence that careful control of glucose or sugar helps to prevent kidney disease. A patient should follow his/her doctor’s orders carefully regarding diet and medicines to help control your glucose levels.
A person should limit or avoid the following sweets and salty foods in order to keep his kidney healthy
- Ice cream
- Canned foods
- Salted chips and snacks
- Meat tenderizer
- Onion, garlic, or table salt
- Chocolate Regular sugar
- Meat tenderizer
- sweetened yogurt
- salted snacks including potato chips, corn chips
- whole-grain hot cereals contain more phosphorus
Control your diabetes is the first step in treating diabetic nephropathy. With proper and managed blood sugar level and hypertension may help to prevent or delay kidney dysfunction and other complications.
The initial stages of the disease treatment plan may include various medications, such medicines help;
- Limit or control protein quantity in urine
Medications sometimes can reduce the level of the protein albumin in the urine and improve kidney function.
- Control or lower high cholesterol
Statins are also called Cholesterol-lowering drugs used to treat high cholesterol and reduce protein in the urine.
- Control high blood sugar
A number of medications have been shown to help control high blood sugar in people with diabetic nephropathy. Studies support the goal of an average hemoglobin A1C of less than 7%.
- Manage high blood pressure
In order to treat high blood pressure medications called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are used.
Use of both of these together is not advised due to their increased side effect. Studies support the goal of a blood pressure reading below 140/90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) depending on your age and overall risk of cardiovascular disease.
Foster bone health
Medications that help manage your calcium phosphate balance are important in maintaining healthy bones.