September 18, 2021

Types of kidney diseases

5 min read

 

 

 

 

 

Types of kidney diseases

There are many types of kidney diseases, here we discuss only three types of kidney diseases.

Three types of kidney diseases:

  1. Chronic kidney disease.
  2. Polycystic kidney disease.
  3. Glomerulonephritis

 

  1. Chronic kidney disease.

 

Chronic kidney disease is a general type of kidney disease which is related to the disorders affecting the structure and function of the kidney. . Diabetes and high blood pressure (Hypertension) are two major causes of chronic kidney disease in all developing and developed countries.

 

Causes of CKD.

 

As discussed earlier that there are two major types of CKD i.e. diabetes and high blood pressure. Diabetes results in a person when the sugar level in the blood increases up to the specific limit, damaging many organs in the body, including the heart, as well as blood vessels, kidneys, nerves, and eyes.

If kidney disease gets worse, wastes can accumulate to a high level in the blood and makes the person sick.

 

Symptoms of CKD.

 

Symptoms of chronic kidney disease are as follow;

 

  • Loss of appetite
  • More urination, especially at night
  • muscle cramping
  • inflammation in feet and ankles
  • Dry and itchy skin
  • Trouble in sleeping
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension

 

 

Prevention

 

In order to prevent Chronic Kidney Disease, lead a healthy lifestyle that can help prevent high blood pressure, diabetes, and kidney diseases or help keep them under control.

Follow these tips to lower the risks and causes of CKD.

  • Avoid from smoking
  • Do not use tobacco
  • Avoid from alcohol
  • Take a low-salt, low-fat diet
  • Check yourself regularly to your doctor
  • Exercise at least 30 minutes daily

 

  1. Polycystic kidney disease

This type of kidney disease is characterized by the formation and progressive enlargement of renal cysts which lead to end-stage renal failure (ESRF) in late middle life. It is a genetic disorder, which means it is caused by a mutation (change in the sequence of genes). There are two types of PKD. (a) autosomal dominant PKD (b) autosomal recessive PKD. Autosomal dominant PKD is generally called “adult” PKD because people with this type of PKD might not have any symptoms between the age of 30 and 50 years old. Autosomal recessive PKD is also called infantile PKD because kids can show symptoms of the disease in their first few months of life or even they are born.

 

Causes

Mutations in the PKD1 and PKD2 genes cause polycystic kidney disease.

          Kidney stones

  • Pain in the back
  • skin that bruises easily.
  • Blood in the urine
  • Frequent urination
  • Urinary tract infection

 

Prevention

 

There is no suitable model to prevent either from PKD. A person may be able to keep his kidneys working longer by following a healthy lifestyle. Some useful tips for living healthy may include;

 

  • Avoid from alcohol
  • Keep a healthy weight
  • Keep a healthy blood pressure
  • Keep a healthy blood sugar level
  • Take exercise at least 30 minutes daily
  • Take prescription medicines as your doctor tells you to
  • Eat a low-salt, low-fat diet

 

 

  1. Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis is a group of disorders that damage or injure the part of the kidney that filters blood. This group of disorders also called autoimmune type, concerning with the causes of inflammation including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis.

 

What is Acute glomerulonephritis?

It is known as inflammation and subsequent damage of the glomeruli resulting in hematuria, proteinuria, and azotemia. It is due to primary renal disease.

 

The Most common cause Acute glomerulonephritis;

The acute disease may be caused by different types of infections including strep throat. It is also caused by other illnesses including Goodpasture’s syndrome and polyarteritis nodosa.

 

How can we differentiate between acute and chronic glomerulonephritis?

 

Acute glomerulonephritis

 

This type of glomerulonephritis starts suddenly.

 

Chronic glomerulonephritis

 

This type of glomerulonephritis lasts during which the onset is gradual. Both types can be fatal.

As we know that acute glomerulonephritis usually appears suddenly, by following throat and skin infection.

Symptoms (Acute glomerulonephritis)

  • High blood pressure or hypertension
  • Coughing and shortness of breath
  • Urine which is brown in color containing traces of blood
  • Urination in very small quantity
  • Puffiness of the face

Chronic glomerulonephritis develops over a long-time, generally without the prominent symptoms. However, with this type of glomerulonephritis, a complete failure of the kidney can result.

People with Chronic glomerulonephritis may face

Symptoms (Chronic glomerulonephritis)

 

  • Blood in the urine
  • High blood pressure or hypertension
  • Because of water retention ankles or face may become swollen
  • Frequent urination especially at night
  • Bubbles or foam in the urine due to the excess amount of protein in the urine
  • Loss of appetite
  • vomiting
  • Muscle cramping
  • The skin may become dry
  • nausea

 

Causes of glomerulonephritis

The basic causes of this disorder are often unknown, however, there are risk factors that can affect the likelihood of glomerulonephritis.

  • Genetic factors can play a role, but people with glomerulonephritis do not generally have a family member who also has the condition.
  • Infectious disease such as TB along with syphilis can lead to
  • Viral infections such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C may increase the risks as well.
  • Long-term use of specific medications, e.g. non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin also increases the risk.
  • Acute glomerulonephritis may develop into chronic or long-term glomerulonephritis.

 

Scarring

 

Scarring of the glomeruli may also lead to glomerulonephritis. It occurs when growth factors activate the glomerular cells to produce scar material. High blood levels may be considered to make the blood flow into the kidney at a very high speed, putting a strain on the filtering process causing a rise in blood pressure. The capillaries in the glomerulus damage and leave the glomeruli with scarring.

 

Treatment

Following tips may be helpful for the treatment of glomerulonephritis;

 

  • Stop smoking
  • Treating high blood pressure
  • Treating high cholesterol
  • Plasma exchange
  • Reduce the intake of food that contains a high amount of salts
  • Reduce the intake of food or drinks that contain a high amount of potassium fluid
  • Glomerulonephritis sometimes may be treated with specific types of medicine known as immunosuppressants
  • . These medicines suppress the immune system of the patient.
  • Steroids may also use to reduce swelling and suppress the immune system.
  • Cyclophosphamide also used in much lower doses for the treatment of glomerulonephritis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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